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Top 05 Intermediate Interview Questions with Answers For Cyber Security Freshers ( PART 1 )


Are you a fresh graduate or aspiring professional looking to kickstart your career in the field of Cyber Security? Congratulations on choosing a rewarding and in-demand field! As you prepare for job interviews, it’s crucial to familiarize yourself with common interview questions that are frequently asked in the intermediate stage.

In this interview questions and answers blog series, we will cover the top 5 intermediate interview questions in each blog that you may encounter during your Cyber Security job interviews. These questions are designed to assess your knowledge, problem-solving abilities, and critical thinking skills. Additionally, we will provide detailed answers and explanations to help you understand the concepts behind each question.

Part 1 of this series will focus on the first five interview questions.

What is Cyber Security

Cyber security is like a digital fortress that protects our online world from sneaky villains. It’s the art and science of safeguarding computer systems, networks, and data from hackers, thieves, and other cyber threats. Imagine a superhero defending a city against evil masterminds who try to steal information, cause chaos, or disrupt important services. Well, cyber security professionals are the real-life heroes who use their skills and tools to defend our digital realm. They work tirelessly to identify vulnerabilities, develop strong defenses, and stay one step ahead of the bad guys. So, whether it’s protecting your personal information, securing business networks, or ensuring the smooth functioning of critical infrastructure, cyber security is here to save the day and keep our virtual world safe.

Interview Questions with Answers For Cyber Security Freshers

Now am gonna tell you Five questions with detailed answers so you can crack interviews very easily . 


Explain 3-way Handshake?

The 3-way handshake is a fundamental process used in establishing a reliable communication connection between two devices over a network, such as the Internet. It is commonly employed in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which is the most widely used protocol for reliable data transmission.

Here’s how the 3-way handshake works:

  • SYN (Synchronize):

 The first step of the handshake is initiated by the client (also known as the initiator or sender) that wants to establish a connection with the server (the receiver). The client sends a special TCP packet called a SYN packet to the server. This packet contains a random sequence number to initiate the connection request. The SYN packet indicates the client’s intention to start communication.

  • SYN-ACK (Synchronize-Acknowledge): 

Upon receiving the SYN packet, the server acknowledges the client’s request by sending a SYN-ACK packet back to the client. The SYN-ACK packet contains an acknowledgment number that is one greater than the client’s sequence number, indicating that the server is ready to establish a connection.

  • ACK (Acknowledgment):

Finally, when the client receives the SYN-ACK packet from the server, it sends an acknowledgment packet (ACK) back to the server. This packet confirms the server’s acknowledgment and completes the three-way handshake. The ACK packet contains the acknowledgment number, which is one greater than the server’s sequence number.

Once the 3-way handshake is successfully completed, the connection between the client and server is established, and they can begin exchanging data packets reliably. Each subsequent packet sent during the session includes sequence numbers and acknowledgment numbers to ensure data integrity and order.

The 3-way handshake is crucial for establishing a reliable and synchronized connection between devices. It allows both the client and server to agree upon initial sequence numbers, confirm the availability and readiness for communication, and establish a basis for reliable data transmission.

Understanding the 3-way handshake is important in the field of networking and cybersecurity, as it helps in troubleshooting connectivity issues, analyzing network traffic, and identifying potential vulnerabilities or attacks at the connection establishment phase.


What are MITM Attacks ? How to prevent MITM attacks ? 

MITM stands for “Man-in-the-Middle,” and MITM attacks refer to a type of cyber attack where an attacker intercepts and potentially alters the communication between two parties without their knowledge or consent. In a MITM attack, the attacker secretly positions themselves between the legitimate communicating parties, allowing them to eavesdrop on the communication, manipulate data, and even impersonate one or both of the parties involved.

Here’s a simplified explanation of how a MITM attack works:

  • Intercepting the Communication: 

The attacker positions themselves between the legitimate sender (Party A) and the intended recipient (Party B). This can be achieved through various techniques, such as compromising a network device, manipulating DNS settings, or creating a rogue access point.

  • Impersonation:

Once the attacker is in the middle, they may impersonate Party A to Party B and vice versa. This can involve using techniques like IP spoofing or forging digital certificates to make the parties believe they are communicating directly with each other.

  • Eavesdropping and Manipulation: 

With the communication path intercepted, the attacker can eavesdrop on the messages being exchanged between Party A and Party B. This allows them to gather sensitive information, such as login credentials, financial details, or personal data. Moreover, the attacker can modify or inject malicious content into the communication, leading to data manipulation or the introduction of malware.

MITM attacks can occur in various scenarios, including public Wi-Fi networks, compromised routers, insecure websites, or even through malware-infected devices. Some common examples of MITM attacks include:

  • Session Hijacking:

The attacker hijacks an ongoing session between a user and a server, taking over the authenticated session and gaining unauthorized access.

  • SSL/TLS Stripping: 

The attacker downgrades a secure HTTPS connection to an unencrypted HTTP connection, making it easier to intercept and manipulate the communication.

  • ARP Spoofing: 

The attacker manipulates the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache of a network device, redirecting the traffic to their own machine and enabling interception.

Mitigating MITM attacks involves implementing strong security measures such as:

  • Encryption:

Using strong encryption protocols, like HTTPS, ensures that data remains encrypted during transit, making it difficult for attackers to read or manipulate.

  • Certificate Validation:

Verifying the authenticity of digital certificates helps prevent attackers from impersonating legitimate websites or services.

  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI):

Implementing a robust PKI infrastructure helps ensure the integrity and authenticity of digital certificates.

  • Network Monitoring:

Regularly monitoring network traffic can help detect suspicious activities and identify potential MITM attacks.

  • User Awareness:

Educating users about the risks associated with unsecured networks and encouraging best practices, such as using virtual private networks (VPNs) and avoiding untrusted Wi-Fi networks, can help mitigate MITM attacks.

By understanding MITM attacks and taking appropriate security measures, individuals and organizations can better protect their sensitive information and maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of their communications.


What is DLP ?

DLP stands for “Data Loss Prevention.” It refers to a set of techniques, strategies, and technologies implemented to identify, monitor, and protect sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure, leakage, or loss. The primary goal of DLP is to prevent sensitive data from being exposed to unauthorized individuals or entities, both within and outside an organization.

DLP typically involves a combination of policies, processes, and technologies that work together to safeguard sensitive data throughout its lifecycle. Here are some key aspects of DLP: 

  • Data Discovery and Classification:

DLP solutions often include tools and algorithms to scan and identify sensitive data within an organization’s systems, networks, and storage repositories. These tools can automatically classify data based on predefined rules or patterns, helping organizations gain visibility into their sensitive information.

  • Policy Enforcement:

DLP policies are established to define how sensitive data should be handled, shared, and protected. These policies can specify actions such as blocking, encrypting, quarantining, or alerting when data is being transmitted or accessed in violation of the established rules. DLP solutions monitor data flow in real-time and enforce these policies to prevent unauthorized data exposure.

  • Endpoint Protection:

DLP can be implemented on endpoints (such as laptops, desktops, and mobile devices) to ensure that sensitive data is protected even when it is accessed outside the corporate network. Endpoint DLP solutions can monitor and control data transfers, prevent data leaks via removable media, and enforce encryption and access controls.

  • Network and Email Monitoring:

DLP solutions can inspect network traffic, including emails, attachments, and file transfers, to detect and prevent the unauthorized transmission of sensitive data. By analyzing content, metadata, and contextual information, DLP tools can identify potential data breaches and take appropriate actions to mitigate risks.

  • User Education and Awareness:

DLP initiatives often include training programs to educate employees about the importance of data protection and the potential risks associated with mishandling sensitive information. By fostering a security-conscious culture and promoting best practices, organizations can reduce the likelihood of accidental data leaks or insider threats.

Implementing DLP helps organizations comply with data protection regulations, maintain customer trust, and prevent financial and reputational damage resulting from data breaches. By proactively identifying, monitoring, and controlling sensitive data, DLP solutions provide organizations with an additional layer of defense against data loss or unauthorized disclosure, both internally and externally.


Do you Telnet ? what is it’s weakness ?

While I don’t have personal experience with Telnet, I am familiar with its concepts and characteristics. Telnet is a network protocol used for remote command-line access to computers or devices. It allows users to log in to a remote system and perform tasks as if they were physically present at that system’s terminal.

Telnet has several weaknesses that make it insecure for use in modern environments. Let’s discuss a few: 

  • Lack of Encryption: 

Telnet transmits data in plain text, which means that sensitive information, including login credentials, is sent without encryption. This exposes the data to interception and eavesdropping attacks, where an attacker can easily read and capture the transmitted information.

  • Lack of Authentication:

Telnet relies on simple username and password authentication, which is vulnerable to brute-force attacks. Attackers can repeatedly guess login credentials to gain unauthorized access to systems or devices.

  • Session Hijacking:

Telnet sessions are susceptible to session hijacking or “sniffing” attacks. Since Telnet does not use encryption or session encryption keys, an attacker can intercept and manipulate the ongoing session. This can lead to unauthorized control over the session or extraction of sensitive information.

  • Lack of Integrity Checks: 

Telnet does not provide mechanisms for data integrity verification. As a result, an attacker can modify the data being transmitted during a Telnet session without detection. Unauthorized changes in commands, responses, or data exchanged between the client and server can occur.

Considering these weaknesses, Telnet is not recommended for use over untrusted networks, such as the Internet. Secure alternatives like Secure Shell (SSH) should be favored. SSH provides encrypted communication, strong authentication, and data integrity checks, making it a more secure choice for remote command-line access and file transfer.


What is false positive and false negative in case of IDS ?

In the context of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), false positive and false negative are two important concepts related to the accuracy of detecting and classifying security events or incidents. Let’s explore what each of these terms means:

  • False Positive: 

A false positive occurs when an IDS incorrectly identifies a benign or legitimate activity as malicious or intrusive. In other words, it generates an alert or raises an alarm for an event that is not actually an attack or security breach. False positives can occur due to various reasons, such as misconfiguration of the IDS rules, inaccurate detection algorithms, or unusual but harmless network behavior. Dealing with a high number of false positives can lead to alert fatigue, where security analysts spend time investigating and responding to non-threatening events, which can divert attention from genuine security incidents.

  • False Negative:

A false negative, on the other hand, happens when an IDS fails to detect a genuine security threat or malicious activity. It occurs when an actual attack or intrusion goes unnoticed, and the IDS does not generate an alert or alarm. False negatives can occur due to various reasons, including evasion techniques used by attackers, sophisticated attacks that bypass detection mechanisms, or misconfiguration of the IDS rules that may result in gaps in coverage. False negatives are concerning as they allow malicious activities to go undetected, potentially leading to security breaches and unauthorized access to sensitive systems or data.

Finding the right balance between false positives and false negatives is a challenge in IDS deployments. Striking the balance involves fine-tuning the IDS configuration, optimizing detection algorithms, and ensuring regular updates to incorporate new threat intelligence and attack patterns. Continuous monitoring and analysis of IDS alerts, along with timely investigation and response, are crucial in minimizing false positives and false negatives to enhance the overall effectiveness of the intrusion detection system.


In conclusion, this blog provided a comprehensive overview of the top five intermediate interview questions for cyber security freshers. These questions were carefully selected to assess the candidate’s understanding of core concepts, technical knowledge, and problem-solving abilities in the field of cyber security.

Throughout this blog, we explored each question in detail and provided insightful answers to help freshers prepare for their interviews.

As the journey of becoming a cyber security professional continues, it is important to remember that this blog is part one of a series. Subsequent parts will delve into additional intermediate-level interview questions, providing even more valuable insights and guidance for aspiring cyber security professionals.

Stay tuned for the upcoming parts of this blog series, which will equip you with the knowledge and confidence needed to excel in your cyber security interviews. With continuous learning and preparation, you can embark on a successful career in the dynamic and ever-evolving field of cyber security.

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Written by Prapattimynk

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